Migration in development donor policy documents
Migration in development donor policy documents – Factsheet 1
An important indicator of policy attitudes towards migration is the language and tone used in the strategy documents of international development donors. The Migrating out of Poverty RPC conducted a review of key development donor policy documents for select African and Asia countries in September 2013 to assess how these plans discuss migration issues. The review focused on internal and regional migration and poverty reduction. The review consisted of a keyword search adapted from a previous review of migration issues in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (Black and Sward, 2009), which was used to isolate references to migration issues for subsequent analysis. A selection of country strategies that were current between January 2011 and September 2013 were reviewed for Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, South Africa and Zimbabwe. These included plans of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the African Development Bank (AfDB), the European Union (EU), the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), and the World Bank. The seven countries selected were chosen because they are the locations in which the large majority of the Migrating out of Poverty RPC’s programme of research is being conducted.
African Development Bank Country Partnership Strategy Papers (AfDB CPSPs) – Factsheet 2
African Development Bank (AfDB) Country Partnership Strategy Papers (CPSPs) contain very little discussion of migration and development issues. Internal migration is ignored in most plans and where it is discussed it is mainly held to be responsible for problems with urban services.
Asian Development Bank Country Partnership Strategy Papers (ADB CPSPs) – Factsheet 3
The Asian Development Bank’s Country Partnership Strategy Papers (CPSPs)for Indonesia and Bangladesh contain minimal discussion of migration issues. The CPSP for Bangladesh touches on some elements of international migration – particularly in relation to female labour migration – however ignores internal migration issues. The CPSP for Indonesia makes no mention of the migration-related terms included in the review.
European Union Country Strategy Papers (EU CSPs) – Factsheet 4
European Union Country Strategy Papers provide a framework for the disbursement of EU aid. Discussion of migration in EU CSPs that focus on the African countries surveyed is more robust than those that cover the Asian countries in the review. While all CSPs discuss international migration issues (including remittances), internal migration is typically viewed negatively (for example in relation to Ethiopia, Ghana and Kenya) or ignored (see Bangladesh, Indonesia and South Africa).
United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) Action Plans – Factsheet 5
UNDAF Action Plans provide the strategic programme framework for UN Country Teams (UNCT). They outline the collective response of the UNCT to the priorities of the national development framework, and include a set of expected outcomes. The treatment of migration in UNDAF policy documents varies significantly from country to country. Some documents are preoccupied with support for migrants (see Bangladesh, Ghana, and Indonesia profiles), others with refugee issues (Kenya), others with rural-urban migration (Ethiopia), and others with brain drain (Zimbabwe).
UNDAF Action Plans are available online (see ‘Document Type’ tab):
World Bank Country Strategy Papers – Factsheet 6
A number of World Bank Country Strategy Papers (Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Kenya CSPs) mention the importance of remittances to the national economy. Rural-urban migration is typically portrayed as a factor exacerbating urban problems such as overcrowding, inequality and crime (Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya and South Africa CSPs). Additional migration-related issues raised include refugees (Kenya and Ethiopia), and services labour migrants (Indonesia).